The adult human skeleton has 206 bones. Cortical bone, which is dense and compact and constitutes the outer part of the skeletal structure, comprises 80% of the skeletal weight and provides mechanical strength and protection. Trabecular bone is found on the inside of the ends of long bones, throughout the bodies of the vertebrae, and in the inner portion of the pelvis. Trabecular bone is 10 x more metabolically active than cortical bone and, by its break down, supplies minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium, when required by the body. The entire skeleton renews itself every 7-10 years through bone modelling and remodeling.
Bone modeling begins before birth and continues until the skeleton is matured. The primary function of bone modeling is to 1) increase bone mass, and 2) to maintain or reshape the bone.
Bone remodeling involves removal of old or damaged bone and replacing it with bone that is newly formed. This occurs throughout life.
What happens when skeletal nutritional requirements are not met?
The skeleton requires nutrients for development, maintaining bone mass, density, and integrity. The rate at which the skeleton repairs itself is influenced primarily by nutrition, physical activity, and certain medications.
All ages can be affected. If the skeletal nutritional requirements for infants and children are not met, growth retardation and bony deformities can occur. In teenagers and young adults, it results in individual failure to attain their genetically prescribed maximum peak bone mineral density, and in middle-aged and older adults, the consequence is rapid bone loss that can cause or aggravate osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is the most common bone associated disease and is characterised by low bone mass. People, mostly women, affected by osteoporosis tend to experience more fractures.
The role of calcium, vitamin K2, and vitamin D3 in bone health & bone support
Calcium provides structure and hardness to bones and teeth. Calcium is also involved in muscle contraction and nerve signalling causing blood vessels to expand and contract, plays a role in blood clotting, and supports protein function and hormone regulation.
Vitamin K2 regulates bone remodeling, an important process necessary to maintain adult bone. Vitamin K2 , a fat-soluble, bacterial by-product from fermented food or animal-originated food products, is found in the heart, brain, bones, and pancreas, is also essential for calcium absorption and prevents the accumulation of calcium in the walls of blood vessels.
Vitamin D3 inhibits bone resorption, increases the effect of vitamin K and helps with the absorption and urinary loss of calcium.
Supplements for bone health and support
Vitamin K is stored in exceptionally low amounts in the body compared to other fat-soluble vitamins and is rapidly depleted without regular dietary intake. It is nearly non-existent in junk food, with little being consumed even in a healthy Western diet, making vitamin K2 supplements a more reliable source of intake.
Dietary calcium is linked to many benefits, particularly bone health. Because diets often fall short of the guidelines, in individuals with higher needs, such as children, older adults, and postmenopausal women, dietary supplementation can help address the body’s demands. Calcium supplementation promotes bone mineral density and strength and can prevent osteoporosis. Studies show that calcium supplementation is beneficial not only for bone health and osteoporosis prevention, but for overall health as well.
Several approaches are available for the treatment of bone diseases, including osteoporosis. Postmenopausal women experience accelerated bone loss, which leads to osteoporosis and increased risk of development of fractures in the spine (vertebral crush fractures), forearm and hip. Recent studies showed that combined therapy with vitamin K2 and D3 increases bone turnover and promotes bone formation, a beneficial additive effect compared to vitamin K treatment alone.
MenaCal.7™ contains vitamin K2, calcium, and vitamin D3 and contributes to the development and maintenance of strong bones and teeth.
Ask your healthcare professional for more information and guidance regarding supplements for bone health and support.